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This week at a glance.

Sept 18

Fugitive Slave Law passed
•Atlanta Compromise
•Lord & Lady Russell released

Sept 19
Universal Suffrage in New Zealand
•Chaplin kept out of U.S.
•Integration struggle in Grenada, Mississippi

Sept 20

National Negro Convention
•"The Jungle" published
•First Cannes Festival
•No Nukers rip up RR tracks

Sept 21
War Resisters oppose Vietnam War
•International Day of Peace

Sept 22
Puerto Ricans say no to Vietnam
•Solidarity organizes in Poland
•First Farm Aid
Sept 23
Truman reveals first Soviet A-bomb
•Huge "No nukes" rally in NYC
•Jane Goodall's Roots & Shoots Day

Sept 24
Draft files destroyed in Milwaukee
•Chicago 8 trial begins

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September 18, 1850

Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, allowing slave owners to reclaim slaves who escaped into another state, and levying harsh penalties on those who would interfere with the apprehension of runaway slaves.

As part of the Compromise of 1850, it offered federal officers a fee for each captured slave and denied the slaves the right to a jury trial.

The Compromise of 1850

Inspired by the U.S.
Declaration of Independence


Union printed Detroit made


September 18, 1895
African-American educator (founder of the Tuskegee Institute) and leader (born a slave) Booker T. Washington spoke before a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. Although the organizers of the exposition worried that “public sentiment was not prepared for such an advanced step,” they decided that inviting a black speaker would impress Northern visitors with the evidence of racial progress in the South. Washington, in his “Atlanta Compromise” address, soothed his listeners’ concerns about “uppity” blacks by claiming that his race would content itself with living “by the productions of our hands.”
Text of the speech

“Leaders have devoted themselves to politics, little knowing, it seems
that political independence disappears without economic independence
that economic independence is the foundation of political independence."
- Booker T. Washington


September 18, 1961
Earl Bertrand Russell and Lady Edith Russell were released from prison after serving one week of their two-month sentences.
They had been part of a Hiroshima Day vigil in Hyde Park, and were accused of inciting civil disobedience.

Bertrand and Edith Russell after being release from prison.

"Just popping in to say that I SO appreciate your daily reminders......Don't always say it, but so often think it!"
- Gratitude
Janice Fialka

- Detroit



September 19, 1893 

With the signing of the Electoral Bill by Governor Lord Glasgow, New Zealand became the first major country in the world to grant national electoral rights to women. The bill was the outcome of years of suffragist meetings in towns and cities across the country, with women often traveling considerable distances to hear lectures and speeches and pass resolutions.

Read more about New Zealand’s efforts

Organizer Kate Sheppard delivered to parliament a petition signed by a quarter or more of all the women in the country. New Zealand women, both the native Ma¯ori and Päkehä (Anglo-European or non-Maori), first went to the polls in the national elections in November of 1893.
The United States granted women voting rights in 1920, and Great Britain didn’t guarantee full voting rights
until 1928.

Kate Sheppard, a leader of the New Zealand suffragette movement                      

Kate Sheppard, a leader of the New Zealand suffragist movement
A timeline of Women’s Suffrage in the U.S.

"We are tired of having a 'sphere' doled out to us, and of being told that anything outside that sphere is 'unwomanly'. We want to be natural just for a change … we must be ourselves at all risks."
- Kate Sheppard

September 19, 1952
The United States prevented Charlie Chaplin, the groundbreaking British director, actor and producer, from returning to his Hollywood home until he had been investigated by Immigration Services. He had lived and worked in the U.S. more than thirty years.

He had been on the FBI's Security Index since 1948, and was one of over 300 people blacklisted by Hollywood film studios. Chaplin was unable to work after refusing to cooperate during his appearance before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Informed that he would not necessarily be welcomed back, he retorted, "I wouldn't go back there if Jesus Christ were president," and surrendered his U.S. re-entry permit in Switzerland.

 Charlie Chaplin
Chaplin’s FBI files

Charlie Chaplin: "My prodigious sin was, and still is, being a non-conformist.

Although I am not a Communist I refused to fall in line by hating them."

"Wars, conflict, it's all business. One murder makes a villain.
Millions a hero. Numbers sanctify."
- Charlie Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin
1" pin

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September 19, 1966

After 300 members of Grenada, Mississippi’s white community called for “an end to violence,” hundreds of Negro schoolchildren were allowed to integrate the local public schools. The leaders of the vicious organized attack on the kids the previous week (including the town’s justice of the peace) had been arrested by the FBI, and the mobs were gone, but the children were all escorted to school by community members, or driven in cars for safety. Folksinger Joan Baez had been in Grenada the previous week lending support and running the same risks as Grenadans struggling against the segregationist way of life.

Grenada Mississippi in 1966

Marching strong and proud

in Grenada, Mississippi, 1966

On the front line at the March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, 1965.

James Baldwin, Joan Baez, and James Forman (left to right)

"The only thing that's been a worse flop than the organization of non-violence has been the organization of violence"
- Joan Baez

Joan Baez
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September 20, 1830

The National Negro Convention, a group of 38 free black Americans from eight states, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with the express purpose of abolishing slavery and improving the social status of African Americans. They elected Richard Allen president and agreed to boycott slave-produced goods and encourage free-produce organizations. One of the most active would be the Colored Female Free Produce Society, which urged the boycott of all slave-produced goods.

Read more

Richard Allen


National Negro Convention leaders 1879

“This land, which we have watered with our tears and our blood, is now our mother country, and we are well satisfied to stay where wisdom abounds and gospel is free."
- Richard Allen

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September 20, 1906

Upton Sinclair's “The Jungle,” a realist novel, was published, exposing the dangerous conditions and deplorable sanitation in Chicago’s meat-packing plants. Reaction from readers was intense, including President Theodore Roosevelt who coined the term, muckrakers, to describe Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell and other writers who exposed corruption in government and business [what we’d now call investigative reporting].
"The men with the muck-rakes are often indispensable to the well-being of society ...
if they gradually grow to feel that the whole world is nothing
but muck, their power of usefulness is gone."
— Theodore Roosevelt
More on the muckrakers

"All art is propaganda. It is universally and inescabably propaganda; sometimes unconsciously, but often deliberately, propaganda."
- Upton Sinclair

September 20, 1946

The first Cannes Film Festival began in that French Riviera resort town. It had originally been planned for 1939 but Hitler’s invasion of Poland that year, and later France, delayed plans until after the war.
The first Grand Prix and the International Peace Prize were awarded to “The Last Chance” by Leopold Lindtberg of Switzerland, a movie (shot on location) about how three Allied soldiers, including two escaped prisoners of war, lead a group of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied northern Italy across the Alps to safety in nominally neutral Switzerland.
Cannes festival history

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September 20, 1997

3,000 protesters helped to rip up the railroad tracks leading from Krummel nuclear power station to the main Hamburg-Berlin line. The previous year two doctors had sued for closure of the plant due to the increased incidence of leukemia among the population around the plant.
In January, a train carrying nuclear waste derailed near the reactor at Krummel.
At the time, Germany’s 19 nuclear reactors generated 34 per cent of the country’s electricity; in 2005 it was down to 26 percent.

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September 21, 1963

The War Resisters League organized the first American anti-Vietnam War demonstration in New York City. The League, founded in 1923, was the first peace group to call for U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam, and played a key role throughout the war, organizing rallies, the burning of draft cards, civil disobedience at induction centers, and assisting resisters.

History of WRL

WRL home

Water is

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September 21st (since 1982)

The International Day of Peace was established by United Nations resolution in 1981 and first celebrated in 1982 (then as the 3rd tuesday of the month).
Events are planned all over the world to promote peace and make it more visible.

About Peace Day and plans around the world
How to make your own giant peace dove

1" button

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September 22, 1966

Eight hundred Puerto Rican men pledged in Lares to refuse U.S. Vietnam draft. They saw compliance as "part of the colonial subjugation of our country."

(paz=peace in spanish)

September 22, 1980

The Solidarity union under leadership of Lech Walesa was allowed to organize by the Communist-led Polish government. The previous month the group had occupied the Lenin shipyards in Gdansk and had inspired a national general strike.

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September 22, 1985

The first Farm Aid concert, organized principally by Willie Nelson, was held with more than 50 musicians raising $9 million for debt-ridden U.S. farmers.


Farm Aid home

“The fight to save family farms isn't just about farmers. It's about making sure that there is a safe and healthy food supply for all of us. It's about jobs, from Main Street to Wall Street. It's about a better America.”
- Willie Nelson


September 23, 1949

President Harry Truman announced that the Soviet Union had exploded its first atomic bomb, an implosive plutonium weapon, the previous month (it had happened on August 29). "We have evidence," the White House statement said, "that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the U.S.S.R."
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September 23, 1979

200,000 attended an anti-nuclear rally in New York City’s Battery Park. It was the largest political protest
of the late '70s in the U.S., six months after the partial meltdown of the nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Two days earlier the 'No Nukes' concert, also known as the “Muse (Musicians United for Safe Energy) concert,” was held in Madison Square Garden, featuring Bruce Springsteen, Crosby Stills & Nash, Jackson Browne and others.

"People know more
about baseball players'
contracts than they
do about the
policies that govern
the fate of our
children's lives
in twenty years..."

- Jackson Browne

September 23,

Dr. Jane Goodall created Roots & Shoots Day of Peace in 1982 in honor of U.N. International Day of Peace; each year, Roots & Shoots Day of Peace is observed in late September. Roots & Shoots groups around the world fly Giant Peace Dove puppets to celebrate Roots & Shoots Day of Peace for its symbolic meaning. They also plan and implement peace project initiatives to help make the world a better place for animals, the environment and the human community.

Hear Jane Goodall

on World Peace Day

(needs RealPlayer)

Dr. Goodall was appointed a Messenger of Peace in 2002 by U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan. People selected as Messengers of Peace are widely recognized for their achievements in music, literature, sports and the arts.

To commemorate her appointment, Roots & Shoots members at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point first conceived of and created the Giant Peace Dove puppets. Since then, Roots & Shoots groups have flown doves in over 40 countries around the world.

Students with their peace dove - Northern Light School, California

"You cannot get through a single day without having an impact on the world around you. What you do makes a difference, and you have to decide what kind of difference you want to make"

- Jane Goodall

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September 24, 1968

10,000 draft files were destroyed by fourteen anti-war activists with homemade napalm in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Milwaukee 14 home

Watch a video of the event

September 24, 1969

The Chicago 8 trial opened in Chicago. It was the prosecution of eight anti-war activists charged with responsibility for the violent demonstrations at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

The defendants included David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee (NMC); Rennie Davis and Thomas Hayden of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"); Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party; and two lesser-known activists, Lee Weiner and John Froines.

The Chicago 8 minus Bobby Seale

Chicago 8 background

Bobby Seale, after repeatedly asserting his right to an attorney of his own choosing or to defend himself, was bound and gagged in the courtroom and his trial was severed from the rest on November 5th. The group then became know as the Chicago 7.

About Bobby Seale

Bobby Seale home
See what happened in
Peace and Justice history

“You don't fight racism with racism, the best way to fight racism is with solidarity."
- Bobby Seale

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