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This week at a glance.

Monday
August 31

•Back-to-Africa leader
•Don't burn your draft card
•U.S. vs. John Lennon
•IRA rejects violence

Tuesday
Sept 1
•Fast For Life
•Stop the weapons I
•Stop the weapons II
•No taxes for war

Wednesday
Sept 2

•Declaration of (Vietnamese) Independence
•Integration: school cancelled

Thursday
Sept 3
•A slave escapes
•Congress of African People
•Kurdish Peace Train

Friday
Sept 4
•No peace on Labor Day
•Governor says no to integration
•Vets say no to war
•Demos:
Red Square & White House
Saturday
Sept 5
•1st Labor Day Parade
•Palmer Raids
•Women For Life On Earth

Sunday
Sept 6
•Germany stigmatizes Jews
•Missile for a museum

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Monday


August 31, 1921

Marcus Garvey, leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, often referred to as the Back-to-Africa movement in the U.S., was declared “Provisional President of Africa” in a Harlem (New York City) ceremony.
Black nationalist Marcus Garvey is shown in a military uniform as the 'Provisional President of Africa' during a parades up Lenox Avenue in Harlem, New York City, in August 1922, during the opening day exercises of the
annual Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World.
Hear one of his speeches recorded that summer




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August 31, 1965

U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signed into law a bill criminalizing destruction of draft cards. Although it could result in a five-year prison sentence and $1000 fine, the burnings became common during anti-Vietnam War rallies and often attracted the attention of news media.

Draft card burning, 1967



August 31, 1974

In federal court, John Lennon of The Beatles testified the Nixon Administration had tried to have him deported because of his involvement with anti-war demonstrations at the 1972 Republican convention in Miami.
The U.S. v John Lennon trailer

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Tuesday


September 1, 1986

Angelo (Charlie) Liteky & George Mizo, both Vietnam veterans, began an open-ended Fast For Life on the steps of the U.S. Capitol. They were calling attention to their opposition to U.S. support of the Nicaraguan contras and repressive regimes in El Salvador and Guatemala.


“our expression of a deeply felt desire to do everything and anything we can . . . to stop the war with Nicaragua.”

Charles Liteky George Mizo
Liteky was a Catholic chaplain in the Vietnam War and had received the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Charles Liteky and his subsequent peace efforts


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September 1, 1987

During a nonviolent protest at the Concord (California) Naval Weapons Station, a Navy munitions train ran over Brian Willson.
An Air Force and Vietnam veteran, Willson and the other protesters were attempting to stop shipment of weapons to Nicaragua and El Salvador.

Brian Willson bird-watching California, 1997.

They considered U.S. policy in Central America a violation of the Nuremberg Principles. Willson lost both legs and suffered other injuries but has remained an active and articulate leader in the anti-military movement.



Ron Kovic (author 'Born on the Fourth of July')
and Brian Willson (also born on the Fourth of July)

Willson’s testimony before the U.S. House Armed Services Subcommittee on Investigations

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September 1, 1997

Kurdish and British activists blockaded an arms trade exhibition outside London. 89 members of Campaign Against the Arms Trade (CAAT)were arrested for protesting the presence of Turkish, Chinese and Indonesian government representatives in Britain to purchase weapons. The Labour government had pledged “[We will] not permit the sale of arms to regimes that could use them for internal repression or external aggression . . . .” Great Britain is the world’s second largest arms manufacturer (by dollar volume) after the U.S.

What happened that day




September 1 - International Day of War Tax Resistance.

“Refusing to pay taxes for war is probably as old as the first taxes levied for warfare...”

History of War Tax Resistance


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Wednesday


September 2, 1945


Revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam a republic and independent from France (National Day). Half a million people gathered in Hanoi to hear him read the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, which was modeled on the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

note:Ho Chi Minh translates to 'He Who Enlightens'

Read about how it was influenced by the U.S. Declaration



September 2, 1966

On what was supposed to be the first day of school in Grenada, Mississippi—and the first day in an integrated school for 450 Negro children—the school board postponed opening of school for 10 days because of “paperwork.” Nevertheless, the high school played its first football game that night. Some of the Negro kids who had registered for that school tried to attend the game but were beaten and their car windows smashed.

Thursday



September 3, 1838

Frederick Douglass made his escape from slavery in Baltimore and went on in life to become an abolitionist, journalist, author, and human rights advocate.

The escape from “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave”

A Frederick Douglass biography


Frederick Douglass
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The colors of
AFRICA

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September 3, 1970

Representatives from 27 African nations, the Caribbean nations, four South American countries, Australia, and the U.S. met in Atlanta, Georgia, for the first Congress of African People.
Read more about CAP in historical context


September 3, 1997

The Musa Anter, or Kurdish Peace Train (named after an assassinated Kurdish writer) was organized by peace activists to call attention to the oppression of the Kurdish people in Turkey by their own government. At the time, the Turkish words for Kurd, Kurdish, guerilla and torture were banned, and it was illegal to speak the Kurdish language.

The Peace Train was to leave London and travel through Europe to Diyarbakir in eastern Turkey to celebrate International Anti-War Day there. Germany disallowed passage of the Train through its territory (the Germans and Turks have strong military ties). The group then flew to Istanbul, intending to take a fleet of busses to the Kurdish region. Turkish troops stopped them from reaching Diyarbakir, forcing them back to the capital.

On this day they tried to hold a press conference to discuss the Kurdish issue. The police arrested or beat all present, including foreign diplomats.
The story of the Musa Anter Peace Train

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Rio Rancho, NM



Friday


September 4, 1949

Paul Robeson, scholar, athlete, musician and leader, defying a racist and red-baiting mob, sang to 15,000 at a Labor Day gathering in Peekskill, New York.
 
Paul Robeson (at microphone) singing to the Labor Day gathering in Peekskill, New York

The story and photographs of what happened

Film from that day narrated by Sidney Poitier

Peace quote


"Like any other people, like fathers, mothers, sons and daughters in every land, when the issue of peace or war has been put squarely to the American people, they have registered for peace"
- Paul Robeson





September 4, 1957

Elizabeth Eckford and eight other young Negroes were blocked from becoming the first black student at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Governor Orval Faubus had called out the National Guard to prevent the court-ordered integration of the public schools in the state’s capital.
President Dwight Eisenhower eventually sent in federal troops to guarantee the law was enforced.
Elizabeth Eckford Read more Elizabeth Eckford followed and taunted by mob, 1957.

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- Tucson, AZ




September 4, 1970

Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) began Operation RAW (Rapid American Withdrawal). Over the following three days more than 200 veterans, assisted by the Philadelphia Guerilla Theater, staged a march from Morristown, New Jersey, to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, reenacting the invasion of small rural hamlets along the way.

Operation Rapid American Withdrawal 1970-2005: An Exhibition:



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September 4, 1978
Simultaneous demonstrations in Moscow’s Red Square and in front of the White House in Washington, D.C. were organized by the War Resisters League, calling for nuclear disarmament.

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Saturday


September 5, 1882
Well over 10,000 workers demanding the 8-hour day marched to protest working conditions in the first-ever U.S. Labor Day parade, held in New York City. About a quarter million New Yorkers turned out to watch.

The idea was that of Peter J. McGuire, a union carpenter and cofounder of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, a precursor of the American Federation of Labor.

< Peter J. McGuire, the carpenter and labor leader who conceived of Labor Day
1st Labor Parade in Union Square, NYC 1882
He wanted to honor the American worker and create a holiday break between the 4th of July and Thanksgiving, proposing a “festive parade through the streets of the city.”
Originally the second Tuesday of the month, it is now the first Monday, and recognized as a national holiday. 
More on the history and practice of Labor Day




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September 5, 1917

In 48 coordinated raids across the country, later known as the Palmer Raids, federal agents seized records, destroyed equipment and books, and arrested hundreds of activists involved with the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), known fondly as the Wobblies.

Attorney General Mitchell Palmer

 

 Big Bill Haywood

Among the arrested was William D. “Big Bill” Haywood, a leader of the IWW, for the “crimes of labor" and “obstructing World War I.”
An Italian anarchist’s bomb blew himself up on the porch of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer’s residence in Washington shortly after the discovery of 38 bombs mailed to leading politicians.
More on Attorney General Palmer

Peace quote


"I want political action that counts. I want a working class that can hold an election every day if they want to"

- William Dudley
"Big Bill" Haywood




September 5, 1981

The Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp was established outside Greenham Air Base in England, as “Women For Life On Earth.”



 

Greenham Peace Camp

April, 1983.

More on Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp





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Sunday



September 6, 1941


All Jews over the age of six in German-occupied territories were ordered by the Nazi regime to wear a yellow Star of David on their clothing.


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September 6, 1963

Anti-nuclear marchers who began in Glasgow, Scotland, arrived in London and attempted to present a dummy missile to the British Imperial War Museum.


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