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This week at a glance.

July 6

•Homestead strike
•Anne Frank in hiding
•Morgan wouldn't move
•Berkeley students vs. troop train

July 7
•First U.S. draft
•Mother Jones leads her children
•Scientists at Pugwash
•Neutron bomb test
•No nukes in Black Hills

July 8

•Vermont first free state
•Glasgow women demand peace
•Omaha Action
•ICJ: Nukes illegal

July 9
•Draft opponents sentenced
•Scientists warn of WMDs

•Ineptness foils Klan attack
•Greenpeace attacked
July 11
•The Niagara Movement
•American Indian Movement
•Draft opponents cleared

July 12
•White House official convicted

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July 6, 1892

In one of the worst cases of violent union-busting, a fierce battle broke out between the striking employees (members of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers) of Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Company and a Pinkerton Detective Agency private army brought on barges down the Monongahela River in the dead of night. Twelve were killed.
Henry C. Frick, general manager of the plant in Homestead, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, had been given free rein by Carnegie to quash the strike. At Frick's request, Pennsylvania Governor Robert E. Pattison then sent 8,500 troops to intervene on behalf of the company.

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Peace quote

"How wonderful it is that no one need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world."
- Anne Frank

Peace quote

"At the time I was arrested I had no idea it would turn into this. It was just a day like any other day. The only thing that made it significant was that the masses of the people joined in."
Rosa Parks

July 6, 1942

In Nazi-occupied Holland, thirteen-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family were forced to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse under threat of arrest and deportation to a concentration camp by the Einsatzgruppen (Task Force), a part of the German Gestapo.

More on Anne Frank

July 6, 1944

Irene Morgan, a 28-year-old black woman, was arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus eleven years before Rosa Parks did so. Her legal appeal, after her conviction for breaking a Virginia law (known as a Jim Crow law) forbidding integrated seating, resulted in a 7-1 Supreme Court decision barring segregation in interstate commerce.

Irene Morgan
More about Irene Morgan
Listen to Bayard Rustin’s song, “You Don’t Have to Ride Jim Crow”

July 6, 1965

As many as 500 students in Berkeley, California, attempted to block trains carrying troops destined for Vietnam along the Santa Fe Railroad tracks; there were no casualties. Organized by the Vietnam Day Committee, this was the first civil disobedience at UC-Berkeley against the Vietnam War.


July 7, 1863

The first military draft was instituted in the U.S. to provide troops for the Union army in the American Civil War. Once called, a draftee had the opportunity to either pay a commutation fee of $300 to be exempt from a particular battle, or to hire a replacement that would exempt him from the entire war.

July 7, 1903

Labor organizer Mary Harris "Mother" Jones led the "March of the Mill Children" over 100 miles from Philadelphia to President Theodore Roosevelt's Long Island summer home in Oyster Bay, New York, to publicize the harsh conditions of child labor and to demand a 55-hour work week. It is during this march, on about the 24th, she delivered her famed "The Wail of the Children" speech. Roosevelt refused to see them.


The March of the Mill Children

continued (info, photos, links). . .

Mother Jones
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July 7, 1957

Convened at the onset of the Cold War, a group of scientists held their first peace conference in the village of Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Canada. The mission of the Pugwash Conference was to “. . . bring scientific insight and reason to bear on threats to human security arising from science and technology in general, and above all from the catastrophic threat posed to humanity by nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction . . . .”

Bertrand Russell

Wealthy industrialist and Pugwash son Cyrus Eaton had invited the world’s greatest minds to his family home in Nova Scotia and address the emerging threat of nuclear war. The Conference became the basis for an ongoing organization that deals with issues of weapons of mass destruction. The 1995 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Joseph Rotblat (one of the original signatories of the Pugwash Manifesto) and to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.
Albert Einstein

Pugwash home

Peace quote

“War does not determine who is right, only who is left."

- Bertrand Russell

Peace quote

“I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.”
Albert Einstein

July 7, 1977

The United States conducted its first test of the neutron bomb. The neutron bomb was a tactical thermonuclear weapon designed to cause very little physical damage through limited blast and heat but was designed to kill troops through localized but intense levels of lethal radiation.

A neutron bomb explosion at a test site

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July 7, 1979

2,000 American Indian activists and anti-nuclear demonstrators marched through the Black Hills of western South Dakota to protest the development of uranium mines on sacred native lands.


July 8, 1777

Vermont became the first British colony in America to abolish slavery when adopting its first constitution following its breaking away from New York.

Read more on slavery in Vermont

More on slavery in the northern states

July 8, 1917

The Women's Peace Crusade organized a protest against the first world war in Glasgow, Scotland. Processions from two sides of the city, accompanied by bands and banners, wound their way toward the Glasgow Green where they merged into one demonstration of some 14,000 people.

more on the Women's Peace Crusade

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July 8, 1958

In an effort called "Omaha Action," by the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA),
anti-nuclear activist Don Fortenberry was arrested after climbing a fence to protest against the building of ICBM sites in Nebraska.
Also arrested during this series of actions was
internationally known peace activist A. J. Muste.

"Omaha Action" protestors march from Lincoln,Nebraska to the Mead ICBM construction site in 1959.
Source — NSHS.
More about Omaha Action
No Nuclear
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July 8, 1996

The International Court Of Justice declared that, in almost all circumstances, use of nuclear weapons is illegal.


July 9, 1917

During World War I, Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, leaders of the No-Conscription League, spoke out against the war and the draft. Both were found guilty in New York City of conspiracy against the draft, fined $10,000 each and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment with the possibility of deportation at the end of their terms.

Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman in New York, 1917,
awaiting trial on charges of opposing the draft during World War I.

More about Emma and Alex

Emma Goldman
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July 9, 1955

Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell and nine other scientists warned that the development of weapons of mass destruction had created a choice between war and survival of the human species.

Albert Einstein Bertrand Russell

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was published in London and became the basis for the Pugwash Conference of scientists two years later.

“Here, then, is the problem which we present to you, stark and dreadful and inescapable: Shall we put an end to the human race; or shall mankind renounce war? People will not face this alternative because it is so difficult to abolish war.
The abolition of war will demand distasteful limitations of national sovereignty....”

“We have to learn to think in a new way. We have to learn to ask ourselves ... what steps can be taken to prevent a military contest of which the issue must be disastrous to all parties?”

Text of the manifesto

Albert Einstein
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July 10, 1976

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members near Georgetown, Illinois, gathered for an ill-fated cross-burning. The meeting started an hour late. When the Klansmen went to plant their cross, it was too heavy to move. Three hours later, after the cross was chopped down to a portable size, it was planted, but would not light.
Finally, the Klan members gave up and went home.

The ugly history of the KKK

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July 10, 1985

The Greenpeace flagship, Rainbow Warrior (named after a North American Indian legend), was blown up in Auckland Harbour, New Zealand, killing one and sinking the ship.

The Rainbow Warrior then

The attack had been authorized by French President François Mitterand because the environmental organization had plans to protest France’s nuclear bomb tests in the South Pacific.

The Rainbow Warrior today

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All great legislation grows out of mass movements organized by people like you and me.

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July 11, 1905

The Niagara Movement, precursor of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was formed in Buffalo, New York. Meeting at the home of Mary Burnett Talbert were W.E.B. DuBois, John Hope and 30 others who rejected the accommodationist approach of Booker T. Washington (“The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremest folly . . . .”)
Founders of The Niagara Movement at Niagara Falls

The Niagara Movement's manifesto was, in the words of DuBois, "We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now . . . We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win."

The Niagara Movement and its founding principles

July 11, 1968

The American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by George Mitchell, Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt and 200 others. They gathered to organize in order to deal with widespread and persistent poverty among native Americans, and unjust treatment from all levels of government.

American Indian Movement background

Peace quote

"What we did in the 1960s and early 1970s was raise the consciousness of white America that this government has a responsibility to Indian people. That there are treaties; that textbooks in every school in America have a responsibility to tell the truth..."
- Dennis Banks

Peace quote

“I was proud of the youths who opposed the war in Vietnam because they were my babies."
- Dr. Benjamin Spock

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July 11, 1969

The federal appeals court in Boston reversed the convictions of Dr. Benjamin Spock and Michael Ferber who had been found guilty of conspiring to counsel evasion of the military draft in 1968. The judges considered their activities opposing the Vietnam War covered under the 1st Amendment right to free speech.
Dr. Benjamin Spock and
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Read "A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority" co-authored by Dr. Spock (1967)


July 12, 1974

John Ehrlichman, former top aide to President Richard Nixon, and three others were convicted of conspiring to violate a citizen’s civil rights. Ehrlichman had approved a recommendation for a covert investigation of Daniel Ellsberg in 1971 by writing on a memo: "If done under your assurance that it is not traceable. "Looking for information to discredit Ellsberg, agents of President Nixon’s re-election campaign broke into the office
of his psychiatrist.

John Ehrlichman

Ellsberg, a former Defense Deptartment analyst, had been responsible for public release of The Pentagon Papers, a collection of documents outlining the U.S. history and strategy in Vietnam, that had been classified as secret to avoid public scrutiny.

Simple Watergate chronology

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